The reliability evaluation of electronic components refers to the reliability of electronic components, semi-finished products or analog samples (various test structure graphics), through a variety of reliability evaluation methods, such as reliability testing, accelerated life test and rapid evaluation techniques, and The use of mathematical statistics tools and simulation software to assess its life, failure rate or reliability of the quality level. At the same time, the use of reliability screening technology to evaluate whether the product is qualified, remove the early failure of nonconforming products.
With the increasing demand for the reliability of electronic components, electronic components to ultra-miniaturization, high integration, multi-functional direction of the more rapid development of the reliability of the device evaluation technology is increasingly concerned about the people. In recent years, in this regard have also made a lot of good progress. Taking an integrated circuit as an example, if the reliability of the product is evaluated by using the traditional reliability test, it is generally difficult for the device products with high integration, low production, and expensive test equipment. Some production units, began to use accelerated life test method, can shorten some of the evaluation time. Later, the use of wafer-level reliability (WLR) assessment technology, in the production process or before the package with the test structure samples for reliability assessment, to strengthen the production process control, so that the impact of device reliability in the production process Get a timely exclusion and improvement. In the near future, it has also begun to design the design phase of the failure mode for the product, in the line design, layout design, process design and packaging structure design for reliability design, while strengthening the reliability of online quality control, reliability Evaluation technology gradually from the "output" control (finished control) moved to the "input" side of the design control, production process control, and gradually established the concept of built-in reliability, and further realize the reliability of electronic components is "design and manufacturing Go in, rather than rely on screening out "ideas.
Take the integrated circuit reliability evaluation technology as an example. On the basis of the existing reliability test, reliability screening and accelerated life test, the chip-level reliability evaluation method, microelectronic test structure evaluation method, structural process quality certification evaluation method, rapid evaluation of sensitive parameters Method, computer aided reliability evaluation method and so on. Compared with the traditional method, these evaluation methods have the advantages of saving test samples, shortening the test time and reducing the cost of the test. They all have the strong development potential in order to adapt to the development of the ultra-large scale integrated circuits. The Here are some brief introduction to these evaluation methods.
The failure analysis of electronic components is to use a variety of test techniques and analytical methods to identify the failure process of components, to identify the failure mode or mechanism to determine the ultimate cause of failure. The basic content of the failure analysis generally includes determining the failure of the environment, analysis of product failure mode, to determine the cause of failure, and then study the failure mechanism. In this process, according to a certain failure analysis process, with a variety of test and analysis techniques, combined with the nature of the material, the design and process theory and experience to comprehensive research. Failure analysis procedures are the first external analysis, post-internal analysis; first non-destructive analysis, after the destructive analysis; first analysis of the failure of the background, after the analysis of failure components to avoid loss of traces associated with failure, or the introduction of new damage And makes the judgment of the failure mechanism inaccurate. Most of the test analysis is a one-time, it is difficult to restore, so in each step of the operation should be more careful, careful observation.
For failure analysis, need to use a variety of technical means, mainly in the following categories:
(1) micro-morphology observation, such as optical microscope, simple operation, low cost, but the magnification is small; scanning electron microscope, magnification large, can be used to observe the chip surface bonding area and foot plating situation;
(2) electrical performance test, you can determine the open circuit, short circuit, leakage and resistance changes;
(3) non-destructive analysis techniques, such as X-ray technology, reflective acoustic scanning microscopy, etc., to observe the damage within the material or stratification;
(4) chemical composition analysis techniques, such as various thermal analysis techniques, ray energy spectrum analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, ray diffraction technology, can analyze the characteristics of various materials on the chip.
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